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  1. A Text-book of Applied English Grammar
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  3. Applied English Grammar and Composition
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P.C. Das (Dr.) can i get pdf file of this book? Akash Sarkar i need memo pdf file See all 7 questions about Applied English Grammar and Composition. A Text-book of Applied English Gram by: Edwin Herbert Language: English. Book digitized by DOWNLOAD OPTIONS. download 1 file. Applied English Grammar & Composition (Anglo- Bengali). P C Das. Published by New Central Book Agency Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. ISBN / ISBN.

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Applied English Grammar And Composition P C Das Epub Download

Download PDF. BEGINNERS COMPOSITION. To get Beginners Applied English Grammar & Composition eBook, Composition. Authored by P C Das. English Grammar & Composition. Pages·· MB·19, Downloads. Wren and Martin's monumental work High School English Grammar and ample. FNCSXWK9O0 «Applied English Grammar And Composition // eBook. Applied English Grammar And. Composition. By P C Das. NCBA Publisher, New Delhi.

Almost everyone has been exposed to such literature in childhood, almost all parents revisit it with their own children, and very many teachers use it in their everyday work with children. Child educators, along with publishers of books for children, repeatedly stress the importance for success in the education system, and in life in general, of the acquisition of good reading habits early in life, and adult concern about the influence, good and bad, which literature may exert on child readers has a long history. We set out intending to add to the latter a study with a specific focus on language, because it seemed to us indisputable that the effects, whatever they might be, which literature might work on children, must be mediated largely through the language which constitutes the texts in question. In fiction, the reality-creating potential of language comes to the fore particularly clearly, and writers have a heightened degree of creative licence. It seemed to us worth while to try to highlight the ix x Preface ways in which adult writers use this degree of linguistic licence when writing for children, and the degree to which such writers are themselves constrained by the modes of expression current at their time. Both relationships, that between adult writers and child readers and that between current modes of expression and writers, can, as we hope to have made clear in the body of this book, be considered relationships of control. We hope, further, that our discussion of texts produced by writers of different persuasions, and those writing at different times, might draw attention to these relationships particularly clearly, in offering the opportunity for comparison. Acknowledgements A great many people have, in various ways, helped to shape this book. We are indebted to colleagues, friends and students too numerous to mention for what they have taught us during friendly discussions, whether in seminars or in less structured contexts.

In fiction, the reality-creating potential of language comes to the fore particularly clearly, and writers have a heightened degree of creative licence.

It seemed to us worth while to try to highlight the ix x Preface ways in which adult writers use this degree of linguistic licence when writing for children, and the degree to which such writers are themselves constrained by the modes of expression current at their time. Both relationships, that between adult writers and child readers and that between current modes of expression and writers, can, as we hope to have made clear in the body of this book, be considered relationships of control.

We hope, further, that our discussion of texts produced by writers of different persuasions, and those writing at different times, might draw attention to these relationships particularly clearly, in offering the opportunity for comparison. Acknowledgements A great many people have, in various ways, helped to shape this book.

We are indebted to colleagues, friends and students too numerous to mention for what they have taught us during friendly discussions, whether in seminars or in less structured contexts. Thompson for reading and commenting on earlier versions of chapter 2. We thank the following publishers and individuals for permission to use work for which they hold the copyright: Blackwell Publishers for permission to print Table 1. Lewis Dent for permission to print excerpts from The Borrowers by Mary Norton If he puts it on the adult list, it will not—or at least not immediately.

The consideration of literature written for children from a linguistic perspective is a comparatively new field of study. It is, therefore, a relationship which raises questions about domination or authorial control.

Neither survey is regarded as being absolute in its findings but they should be seen as providing useful points of location as we proceed with our discussions.

A Text-book of Applied English Grammar

In the early years of the century authors began to write for entertainment and we see the advent of what became a mass output of popular juvenile fiction.

This fiction was first characterised by the adventure story, which, while it did not exclude female readers, was located in a particularly male world or what the authors of this type of fiction perceived as a male reality. Ballantyne —94 , W. Kingston —80 , Captain Marryat — , T. Mayne Reid —83 , G. Henty — and a host of lesser-known authors such as Gordon Stables — With the school story we have the two interlocking wings of what we shall refer to hereafter as traditional juvenile fiction.

Before we discuss that tradition in more detail it is useful to take note of the background from which it eventually emerged. The beginnings Narratives of adventure were appearing in England from round about the fourteenth century and while they were not written specifically for children they became popular with a young readership.

They belong to the Romance tradition, usually rooted in French or other European sources, and were invariably in verse. Later, prose narratives appeared in the form of chapbooks, the first cheap printed books for a popular market. Each was published many times in the next hundred years, most likely an indication of their popularity with adults as suitable reading for the young. The stories were connected by a linking narrative centred upon three main characters: Harry Sandford, the sturdy, honest son of a poor farmer, Tommy Merton, the spoilt, snobbish son of a rich merchant and Mr Barlow their clergyman teacher.

It was this narrative that gave the book its reputation as a major work for children. The aim of the stories was, by encouraging kindness to animals, to promote moral behaviour as perceived by Mrs Trimmer.

This meant that the emphasis was on the dutiful. Evenings at Home —6 was a collection in six volumes eventually published in one volume of a miscellany of facts, stories and moral and religious teaching. This is important, as we shall see in Chapter 3, when we consider the linguistic features of traditional juvenile fiction. The adventure story In the first years of the nineteenth century there were a few writers producing less overtly didactic texts for young readers.

By the early s, however, there was a major addition to the types of books available to older children, especially for boys. Midshipman Easy in It was not, however, written for children. Easy at first complained that she could not enjoy her breakfast.

Applied english grammar and composition p c das PDF

Easy had her own suspicions, everybody else considered it past doubt, all except Mr. The discourse hardly seems compatible with the work of Mrs Trimmer or the lack of humour and the moral intent that Thomas Day delivered to his young readers in Sandford and Merton. Certainly, there are very distinct differences in the styles of narrative between Mr.

Midshipman Easy and Masterman Ready, which was published in as the first of his books written specifically for young readers. The Seagrave family are voyaging to Australia and are shipwrecked on an island with an old seaman, Masterman Ready. Ready provides long didactic passages in which there is much reference to thanking God for His mercies and the comfort to be found in the Bible. Mr Seagrave also contributes substantially to the moral and pious flavour of the book.

Kingston and R. There was not in England a similar pioneering movement in creating a lasting body of fiction for girls. Ballantyne, like Marryat an ex-naval officer, drew upon his real-life experiences as a trapper and fur trader in North America in some of his story-telling. Again we note the debt owed to Defoe, the story being centred upon the adventures of three friends who are shipwrecked on a desert island and who survive because of their initiative.

Kingston was one of the most prolific writers for a juvenile readership and, according to Salmon , the most popular. Peter the Whaler is a story very much in the Marryat tradition. The narrative concerns the adventures of the son of a Church of Ireland clergyman who goes to sea and survives fire, piracy and being marooned on Arctic ice.

Actually, in our view, Peter is not really pious until the end of the story see chapter 3. According to Salmon The Three Midshipmen was the most popular adventure story book written for boys, and this nearly forty years after being published. Kingston, Marryat and Ballantyne are the most prominent of the early adventure story-writers. The book was published in and was immediately successful.

Arnold, as well as being the father of Matthew Arnold, is regarded as responsible for the evolution of much of the British public-school system which, in general, had not been held in high regard. This is particularly interesting in that while Thomas Hughes appeared to hero-worship Dr Arnold, Arnold himself was not inclined towards the heartiness of the team spirit so much admired by Hughes.

The value systems esteemed by Hughes are presented to the young reader in a series of episodes or set pieces without a closely knit plot. Thus, we see Tom from his earliest days at home to his return to Rugby as an old boy on hearing of the death of Arnold.

The second great school classic, though nowadays much less known, Eric, or Little by Little, was excessive in its concentration on morals. The book by F. Farrar produced Eric, as Hughes did Tom Brown, to preach but delivers a continuous moral exhortation whereas, as Isabel Quigley informs us: Hughes got in first with his cheerful, attractive preaching, which reconciled his readers to the didactic approach.

Had Eric been the first school story it might, as founder of a genre, have been stillborn. First, he is involved in cribbing—he was actually passing the crib to another boy—and from then on it is a downward path. Eric wishes to be popular and eventually he is swearing, smoking and drinking.

He reforms but soon yields again to temptation, drinking and attacking a master. Eventually, wrongly suspected of theft, he runs away to sea. His health is broken under intolerable conditions and he returns home to die. Nevertheless, it was popular throughout the nineteenth century and the author sums up his purpose in writing it in the preface to the edition: The story of Eric was written with but one single object—the vivid inculcation of inward purity and moral purpose, by the history of a boy who, in spite of the inherent nobleness of his disposition falls into all folly and wickedness, until he has learnt to seek help from above.

This also has a theme of moral decline though the hero eventually redeems himself. Manliness and empire By the s the tradition of English authors producing a maleorientated juvenile fiction was well established. Henty see Carpenter and Prichard, Henty takes the adventure story a stage further than Ballantyne, Kingston and Marryat.

This ideal was also manifested in his historical novels, which often focused on a crucial point in English history. The books were written to a formula so much so that if you have read only two or three of the eighty-odd books he wrote for boys you know most of the rest, even if you like one first encountered better than those you met later when you could recognise the formula. Henty adds, however, to the distinguishing features of the tradition his staunch patriotism and belief in the system of empire.

As the adventure story flourished in terms of appealing to a mass readership so too did the school story. The public school is now a well-established and respected institution. Should a boy offend against the code then his peers will make their disapproval known.

Stalky and Co. Like Wells, Townsend is concerned about the values of the book. Attitudes towards the working class, for example, as represented by a game-keeper who is demoted for shooting a fox and attitudes towards violent behaviour as noted above At the top is the revered headmaster. By and large all other levels are fair game for Stalky and his friends, who are quite ruthless in their campaigns against those who incur their disapproval.

Stalky appeared at the height of empire. At the end Stalky leaves school to take his rightful place as servant of the Empire in India. The book was extremely popular and not just with boys. As Carpenter comments: During the s such writers as G. Henty turned out sheaves of stories about brave British lads abroad; but this optimistic school of fiction was to produce no classic, no narrative of any more than trivial interest.

Dual readership In our discussion on traditional juvenile fiction we have considered the significant landmarks of the two wings. There are works which we have not mentioned: F. Anstey — , for example, who made a unique contribution with his Vice Versa, published in This story was based upon school and highly critical of both schoolmasters and private schools.

Anstey, though writing in a most realistic manner, introduces the elements of fantasy and magic. Anstey, in one sense, straddles both camps but we feel that his use of fantasy locates him more properly within the other tradition.

Furthermore, it would appear that though he became popular with children Anstey had adults in mind Musgrave, when he wrote his book. Certainly, his use of satire would indicate this and the book is very different from the tradition as exemplified by Talbot Baines Reed, being an excellent comic fantasy. No discussion of traditional juvenile fiction can omit mention of Robert Louis Stevenson —94 and Treasure Island. Stevenson acknowledges the influence of both Ballantyne and Kingston but produced an entertaining novel which is not explicitly didactic, in offering either scientific or other educational facts as part of the story.

Nor does it preach Christianity in the manner of Kingston, for example. The book contrasts with other examples of the tradition in having what would appear to be a degree of moral ambiguity. As a final comment on dual readership we should not forget the influence of Sir Walter Scott — on the tradition of the adventure story. He only wrote one book specifically for children but his historical adventure novels were as popular with children as they were with adults.

Edward Salmon cites Scott as the third most popular author with boy readers. Juvenile magazines As the nineteenth century progressed the adventure and school stories were to reach a much wider audience through the popularity of weekly magazines.

These are a comparatively late feature in writing produced for young readers. These were not initially aimed at boys but provided an escapism in terms of cheap and sensational fiction for a mass readership. In terms of subject matter they were directly descended from the sensational type of chapbook and from Gothic novels. Many of the stories romanticised the exploits of notorious criminals or boasted titles such as Varney the Vampire its alternative title was The Feast of Blood.

Many of the stories were lurid in terms of both narration and illustration and they were soon courting a juvenile market.

They provoked much criticism from concerned commentators as the century progressed. The adventure writers were well represented with W. Stories for girls It will be apparent in our description of nineteenth-century juvenile fiction that the two wings were clearly intended for a male readership.

Certainly, as we noted above, British writers for girls did not establish a tradition for a female readership in the same way that Ballantyne, Hughes, Henty and others managed to do. Alcott —88 , published in , and What Katy Did by Susan Coolidge — , published in There were British writers, however, although their names are unlikely to be universally familiar with young readers today.

Stories for girls were rooted in domesticity and the didacticism exemplified by Mrs Trimmer, for example, was persistent throughout the century. For girls the work of such writers as Charlotte Yonge — , Juliana Ewing —85 and Mary Louisa Molesworth — continued to reflect the moral and religious purpose of the earlier writers.

Of the three Ewing had probably the greatest literary talent; Margarita Laski in Mrs. Ewing, Mrs.

Molesworth and Mrs. These are a comparatively late feature in writing produced for young readers. These were not initially aimed at boys but provided an escapism in terms of cheap and sensational fiction for a mass readership.

In terms of subject matter they were directly descended from the sensational type of chapbook and from Gothic novels. Many of the stories romanticised the exploits of notorious criminals or boasted titles such as Varney the Vampire its alternative title was The Feast of Blood. Many of the stories were lurid in terms of both narration and illustration and they were soon courting a juvenile market.

They provoked much criticism from concerned commentators as the century progressed. The adventure writers were well represented with W. Stories for girls It will be apparent in our description of nineteenth-century juvenile fiction that the two wings were clearly intended for a male readership. Certainly, as we noted above, British writers for girls did not establish a tradition for a female readership in the same way that Ballantyne, Hughes, Henty and others managed to do.

Alcott —88 , published in , and What Katy Did by Susan Coolidge — , published in There were British writers, however, although their names are unlikely to be universally familiar with young readers today.

Stories for girls were rooted in domesticity and the didacticism exemplified by Mrs Trimmer, for example, was persistent throughout the century. For girls the work of such writers as Charlotte Yonge — , Juliana Ewing —85 and Mary Louisa Molesworth — continued to reflect the moral and religious purpose of the earlier writers.

Of the three Ewing had probably the greatest literary talent; Margarita Laski in Mrs. Ewing, Mrs. Molesworth and Mrs. Gillian Avery makes the point that many of her stories were far too difficult for other than an educated adult readership. The pioneering work of Louisa M. Of some interest are examples of what were popular with girl readers in the late nineteenth century. According to Salmon — 3 Sir Walter Scott and Charles Kingsley —75 were the second and third most favourite authors after Dickens.

In addition Anstey and Farrar were listed. Be this as it may, it does appear that the tradition had taken hold with a growing number of female readers and we shall consider later how English writers in this tradition viewed the role of the female in the world that they represented to their young audience.

Recognisable adventures can occur in narratives that are also good examples of another tradition, namely that of the fantasy story. In many respects The Water Babies is a moral tale presented as a fairytale, a tradition closely related to that of fantasy, and indeed it is not always a simple task to differentiate between them. There is also the literary fairytale which is perceived as based on, or at least as sharing certain features of the traditional fairytale and to which we shall return.

The fairytale assumes magic in the same way that the realistic novel asumes its absence, fantasy fiction may incorporate a magical element, but when it does, that element, far from being assumed, is fantastic relative to the realistic aspects of the work. Many, if not most, of the books published in this tradition are books which commanded a dual readership. Though Alice was written for children perhaps no book has ever had an audience so evenly divided between children and adults.

Applied English Grammar and Composition

Both authors have reversed worlds and indulge in absurd logic and word play. Henceforth fear had gone, and with it shy disquiet. There was to be in hours of pleasure no more dread about the moral value, the ponderable, measured quality and extent, of the pleasure itself. It was to be enjoyed and even promoted with neither forethought nor remorse.

It is worth noting, however, as Carpenter reminds us , that Alice was by no means an immediate success. Amongst those writers who are commonly agreed to be representative of it we can list George MacDonald — and in particular his At the Back of the North Wind , which was didactic but did not preach overtly, Richard Jeffries —87 and Bevis, the Story of a Boy , Edith Nesbit — and her comic fantasy Five Children and It , Kenneth Grahame — and The Wind in the Willows , Francis Hodgson Burnett — and The Secret Garden, published in It will be noted our concept of fantasy includes anthropomorphism as an element.

Thus, adventures may be had by animals with identifiable human feelings as well as by human children where there is some supernatural or other unreal element.

The fairytale, of course, has never been a tradition of works exclusively, or even primarily, for children. This perception may derive in part from certain features typical of fairytale narrative see chapter 5 and in part from the marketing and dissemination of fairytales. Today collections of fairytales are popular gifts for very young children Hallett and Karasak, —7 , and the tales are widely told in infant and nursery schools.

As Steedman points out, attractively produced and priced editions of individual tales like Cinderella, Snow White and Little Red Riding Hood, specifically designed to appeal to children, are available in newspaper shops and supermarkets as well as bookshops. In fact, most traditional fairytales came to British children in translations in which some adaptation had taken place see also Ellis, , for an account of the types of adaptation the Grimm brothers made to the tales they collected.

Throughout the nineteenth century earlier disapproval of the fairytale Mrs Trimmer was a fierce opponent faded as more and more tales from a variety of nations became available to young readers. The brothers Grimm Jacob, —; Wilhelm, — were first published in English in and Hans Christian Andersen —75 appeared throughout the s.

Both Andersen and the brothers Grimm were cited as popular reading matter in the s see Salmon, , By the end of the century the genre was firmly established with the collections and translations of Joseph Jacobs — and Andrew Lang — amongst others.

Of course it is the tales as children read and hear them that are important in this study, but the traditional tales exist in different versions, and there are a number of difficulties for a project such as ours in using translated texts. We therefore limit discussion in chapter 5 to literary fairytales written in English by identifiable authors whose social setting and background is known.

The nineteenth century saw the fairytale arise as a new European literary genre partly as a result of the efforts of collectors of traditional folktales, and partly out of a desire among writers to use their craft in the service of child socialisation Zipes, As fairytales regained their respectability for an account of the loss of respectability during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of the original folk- and fairytales see Zipes, Introduction.

The Industrial Revolution in England created what seemed to many writers a wholly materialistic society founded on greed and selfinterest and benefiting the few at the expense of the many with a new mass of urban poor having come into existence. Nature appeared to have fallen into neglect, and human freedom seemed unduly curtailed by the institutionalisation which accompanied the rise of the new middle classes. In this climate a series of controversies arose about the spiritual and material foundations of English life, nature, childrearing practices, the possibility of human freedom and about possible sources of social cohesion.

Zipes xxiii perceives two basic trends among fairytale writers during the period until The majority of writers embraced conventionalism, while a minority engaged in overt, nonconformist utopianism. According to Zipes xxiii-xxiv , conventionalist writers of the period conceived plots conventionally to reconcile themselves and their readers to the status quo of Victorian society. After a brief period of disturbance,…extraordinary creatures generally enable the protagonists to integrate themselves into a prescribed social order.

Zipes considers Edith Nesbit — conformist, while George MacDonald and Oscar Wilde — figure among writers he considers non-conformist utopians. These reveal a profound belief in the power of the imagination as a potent force that can be used to question the value of existing social relations. There is also a moral impulse in this second direction. However, it does not lead to reconciliation with the status quo—rather, rebellion against convention and conformity. Fairy-tale protagonists are sent on quests which change them as the world around them also changes.

The fairies and the other magical creatures inspire and compel the protagonists to alter their lives and pursue utopian dreams. Narratives of the Henty mould were being produced by any number of imitators. Writers such as F. Brereton — and Percy F. Westerman — were amongst the more popular and were succeeded in turn by W. Johns — , the creator of Biggies. The s and s produced little that was original in terms of the adventure story.

The narratives were stereotypical with both plots and characters fossilised in the s and s. The school story too produced little that was creative in the first half of the century. The tradition of the public schoolboy narrative had run its course by the end of World War II and by the s and s writers were, and still are, producing novels set with day-school backgrounds with characters and situations that are credible.

The inter-war years were not entirely barren. A different type of adventure emerged. Indeed their middle classness has provoked strong criticism of Ransome. This purported to depict working-class life as it really was.

Unhappily the shadow of One End Street hangs over much contemporary realistic writing for children. The fantasy story continued to appear in Britain though the period between the wars is not, as we noted, universally regarded as a particularly creative one.

In , however, The Hobbit by J. In The Hobbit he recreated the world with minute detail. There were maps, there was natural history, there was geology, there were languages and in this world adventures took place. Inglis comments: The Hobbit is the…best link between a present day child and the world which made these stories up in order to describe the early colonizing of England. It has, however, been read by many children and it is in so many ways a book for a young readership.

Tolkien provides a quest to be undertaken by the hero a male and his companions. They sustain many adventures as they undertake the long and dangerous journey.

Good and evil are presented without subtlety and moral choices are easily perceived but not always easily made Kirkpatrick, In addition he was strongly influenced by the fairy books of Andrew Lang and the works of George McDonald ibid. A further point of interest is made by Michael Wood in terms of the theology of the book. Lewis — Lewis was also dealing with subjects that in the s were regarded as taboo for children.

On the one hand was the breezy, optimistic adventure story, set firmly in the real world though greatly exaggerating certain characteristics of that world.

We now see established adult writers entering the field. The general lack of creativity that marked the interwar years appeared to be over. Alan Garner — was one of the most widely discussed writers of the s and s. In The Owl Service the layers involve the present time, a time past and a mythical time. In Red Shift the layers are three independent stories operating at different periods of time.

However, the undoubted originality and evident popularity the two are not always compatible of some authors warrants a brief focus of attention. Penelope Lively began writing for children in the s and her The Ghost of Thomas Kempe proved to be very popular. It also won for her the Carnegie Medal in Another popular post-war writer is Robert Westall —. The change in direction of writing for children in the last thirty years is exemplified by a range of authors which it is beyond the scope of this study to other than briefly mention.

There is the work of Leon Garfield — , for example, or Jan Mark — , Peter Dickinson — and Margaret Many — , who are all worthy of note.

One author who is most definitely not a minority taste is Roald Dahl —90 , who was the most popular author cited by our respondents. Notice here again the fusing of the strands with adventure, fantasy and magic. Because of his very great popularity and the fact that he is very much, in our view, an amalgam of all the traditions Dahl will be the focus of our attention in terms of linguistic description more than once in succeeding chapters and we reserve further comment for now.

In the s the adolescent reader began to be catered for in a manner hitherto unknown in publishing for young readers. A gap, in other words, ready for exploitation.

Applied english grammar and composition p c das PDF

Hinton — and Paul Zindel —. In one sense this would appear to be saying that all literature written for children is a genre in its own right. That, initially, might be useful as a very general starting point but less than rigorous for the purposes of language description.

It is obvious from what we have already discussed that the concept of a strand of traditional juvenile fiction or of fantasy fiction does allow us to classify, to say that there are identifiable features shared by texts. It is also obvious that over a year span the textual strategies adopted by writers for young readers and their narrative frameworks are going to differ considerably in their form and purpose.

Genres therefore provide a precise index and catalogue of the relevant social occasions of a community at a given time. Not least of these is the fact that many genres are not determined by clearly differentiated elements but rather by an interaction between several.

He will, knowingly or not, represent part of an ideology and he will be read, consciously or not, through ideological spectacles. In sum, as the centuries progressed, the central issue was whether genres are fixed in their rules and limited in their number. In the first three decades of the twentieth century the work of the Russian formalists and the structuralists were innovative in their approach to genre see chapter 5 for our discussion of Vladimir Propp — and his theory of the story structure of fairytales.

One reason for this is the debt owed to certain developments in modern linguistics. The linguistic concepts formulated by Saussure were heavily influential in both formalism and structuralism. For Jakobson poetics is not simply the application of linguistic theory to the analysis of poetry but includes any aesthetic or creative linguistic use of the spoken or written medium.

Jonathan Culler upholds the significance of the concept of genre in his Structuralist Poetics and is concerned with, amongst other matters, the relations of expectations that we referred to above. All works must be read in relation to the literary system in which they occur.

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